Stress as transaction considers the myriad personal, social, and environmental factors that come into play in determining the nature, degree, and impact of the stress experience. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). If the stress is prolonged or severe, it could result in diseases of a… In the case of the university soccer players, some initial stressors were identified as “a particularly challenging or sizable opponent,” “rainy conditions,” “the cold,” “not connecting with the coach,” or “negative attitudes on the field.” Typical emotion- or control-focused coping strategies included “working harder” and “sucking it up,” as well as avoidance or passivity. The main controversy surrounding these theories argues that emotions cannot happen without physiological arousal. Self-efficacy is often confused with self-confidence, but in fact confidence is merely one of the many factors that make up a strong sense of self-efficacy. 609-637). Stress as a transaction was introduced with the most impact when Dr. Susan Kobasa first used the concept of hardiness (Kobasa, 1979). Walinga, J. 5: Emotions,gang, gang In the absence of physiological arousal we decide how to feel about a situation after we have interpreted and explained the phenomena. New York: W.W. Norton. The response model of stress incorporates coping within the model itself. Emotion and Adaptation. (2001). (Manfredi & Picket, 1987) This also involves the identification of coping strategies that can be used. Unraveling the mystery of health: How people manage stress and stay well. If harm and threat are seen as high and coping abilities and resources perceived as low, then a high level of stress is probable. They decided to categorize these emotional reaction behaviors as appraisals. Control-focused coping seems to be a more generalizable construct for explaining an individual’s inability to focus on the problem at hand. The nature of stress was described in multiple ways: acute, episodic or intermittent, and chronic. Imagine a stressful situation that you believe you coped with positively. Negative changes in wellbeing are caused by repeated daily experiences of discrete unpleasant emotions in response to chronic stressors, whereas prolonged experiences of pleasant emotions promote wellbeing. In history, the most basic ideology dates back to some of the most notable philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, the Stoics, Spinoza and Hume, and even early German psychologist Stumpf (Reisenzein & Schonpflug, 1992). Thus, a person's belief about their ability to perform problem-focused coping influences the emotions they experience in the situation. Coping and physical health during caregiving: The roles of positive and negative affect. The researchers tested coping strategies and measured child adjustment based on the children's self-reported emotional and behavioral adjustment, determined from levels of self-worth and depression (Rogers & Holmbeck 1997). Emotion and Adaptation. … Stress follows the three stages of alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. Emotion is communicated through facial and bodily expressions, postural and voice changes. Perhaps the most dramatic of stress coping interventions studies was conducted by Fawzy and his colleagues (Fawzy, Cousins, Fawzy, Kemeny, & Morton, 1990; Fawzy, Kemeny, et al., 1990; Fawzy, et al., 1993; Fawzy & Fawzy, 1994), who did specific coping skills interventions with melanoma patients. Thus, the individual evaluates how important the situation is to his or her well-being. (1984). Another aspect of secondary appraisal is a person's coping potential. Walinga (2008), in her work with a university soccer team that was undergoing several stressful changes in addition to the usual performance stressors, recently elaborated upon the appraisal model by suggesting that reappraisal more specifically involves a reiteration of the primary-secondary appraisal process. Scherer, K. R., & Shorr, A., & Johnstone, T. There is a common threshold of adjustment beyond which illness will result. Rather than focusing on increasing control or controlling the barrier or threat itself, the tolerant individual accepts the barrier as reality and accepts the lack of control as a reality. If, on the other hand, the person accepts the lack of control, deeming the lack of resources to be a benign reality, he or she would be able to move the focus to the problems this threat creates and consider options for resolution and goal achievement (problem-focused coping). Then, Your mouth goes dry, your heart beat quickens, your palms sweat, and your legs begin to shake and at the same time you experience fear. Using a stooge to elicit a response, the research proved three major findings relevant to appraisal: By taking into account heightened emotion, reaction to the stooge, as well as prompted questions, all these elicited factors provide a negative or positive affect. What social, environmental, and personal factors contributed to your appraisal of the stressor? Relational: ... and then the secondary appraisal, which … B. perception of the event. The question studied under appraisal theories is why people react to things differently. Rahe R. H., Mahan J. L., & Arthur R. J. Journal of Social Issues, 54, 245–266. Associative processing is a memory-based process that makes quick connections and provides appraisal information based on activated memories that are quickly associated with the given stimulus (Marsella & Gratch 2009). 2011). When evaluating the motivational congruence of a situation, an individual answers the question, "Is this situation congruent or incongruent (consistent or inconsistent) with my goals?" Social psychology, 7th ed. C. coping ability and resources. NY: Guilford Press. [17] In addition, the different levels of intensity of each component are important and greatly influence the emotions that are experienced due to a particular situation. Another example of the appraisal components of an emotion can be given in regards to anxiety. p. 21,22
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